Saturday, March 14, 2020
European Parliament Essays European Parliament Essays The EU Institutions Remember: Treaty of Lisbon (ToL) The ToL has created two new Treaties: The Treaty on the European Union (TEU). Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU) - sets out explicit competencies of the Union and detailed procedures to be used in each policy field. Art 13(1) TEU- EU Institutions 7 institutions recognized: European Parliament, European Council (added with the ToL) Council European Commission Court of Justice of the European Union European Central Bank (added with the ToL) Court of Auditors. Each institution Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦shall act within the limits of powers conferred on it by the TreatiesÃ¢â¬ . Art 13(2) TEU provides that Ã¢â¬Å"the Union shall have an institutional framework which shall aim to provide its values, advance its objectives, serve its interests, those of its citizens and those of the Member States, and ensure the consistency, effectiveness and continuity of its policies and actionsÃ¢â¬ . Formation/composition and Functions/powers of each of the following institutions: The European Commission The Council The European Council The European Parliament The Court of Justice The European Commission; Article 17 TEU; Articles 244-50 TFEU Composition: 27 Commissioners, appointed by governments but must be independent. They represent the EU; 5 year term; operate on principle of collegiality; the College of Commissioners takes collective responsibility for all decisions (political arm). Divided into Directorates-Generals (administrative arm, like national ministries) http://ec.europa.eu/about/ds_en.htm Cabinets: appointed by the President, each Cabinet is the Office of a Commissioner: interface between the Commissioners and the DGs. The President of the European Commission Proposed by the European Council Ã¢â¬â elected by the Parliamentary majority: renewable term of two years; responsible for the political direction of the Commission; his confirmation approved by the MSs and EP; he then chooses the Commission, subject as a whole to approval by the EP. President allocates portfolios to individual Commissioners, each assisted by its own cabinet. Commissioners are responsible to him; he can request an individual Commissioner to resign. High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy: Appointed/dismissed by Council with the agreement of the President. The only member that cannot be dismissed unilaterally by the President of the Commission. Member of the Commission, takes part in the work of the European Council and chairs the Foreign Affairs Council. = Britain's EU commissioner Catherine Ashton Aim: to create a more integrated and coordinated external policy / international profile of the EU. Responsible for the conduct of the Union common foreign and security policy and its security and defence policy. However, they are to act under the mandate of the Council. Powers of the Commission Article 17 TEU Ã¢â¬â (no rigid separation of powers) 1. The Commission shall promote the general interest of the Union and take appropriate initiatives to that end. It shall ensure the application of the Treaties, and of measures adopted by the institutions pursuant to them. It shall oversee the application of Union law under the control of the Court of Justice of the European Union. It shall execute the budget and manage programmes. It shall exercise coordinating, executive and management functions, as laid down in the Treaties. With the exception of the common foreign and security policy, and other cases provided for in the Treaties, it shall ensure the Union's external representation. It shall initiate the Union's annual and multiannual programming with a view to achieving inter institutional agreements. 2. Union legislative acts may only be adopted on the basis of a Commission proposal, except where the Treaties provide otherwise. Other acts shall be adopted on the basis of a Commission proposal where the Treaties so provide. EC
Thursday, February 27, 2020
The Impact of Healthcare Systems on Individuals and Households - Research Paper Example The effects of these two systems on the life of the common man is also looked into to know how effective the two systems are when it comes to delivery and the general income of the common man. Information on different countries using different systems is looked at and how people are affected by these two systems. The main objective of this paper however is to find out if there is any difference in the two systems and which system is good on the common man (Grover 387). There are lots of publications about this issue and most people believe that private based systems are just about making profit while government systems concentrate less on quality. Private systems have a lot of impact on the financial situation of the common man. Many privatized systems are financed by the people themselves through insurance cover. Compared to the government systems the private system is a bit expensive and requires a lot of money for every individual. This leads to a decrease in the income that the g eneral population gets. However this system is also characterized by quality healthcare and no or limited extra expense. Therefore the only amount t hat is paid by the consumer is the insurance cover. Apart from the quality cover offered, private systems also have a quick response to problems as compared to government systems. If someone is sick, then he is well taken care of and this has great effect on the general population (Grover 387). ... This leads to people spending a lot of extra money in medication and this generally reduces their income that they would have saved. The system is also slow to reacting to the general emergency situations. Therefore the amount of money that the common man saved is then used again in the process of getting quality medication. To fulfill the objectives of this research, I took time to collect information about different countries that use private health systems and those that use government health care system. The information that I used were from government websites and the ministry of health care websites. I then related this figures to the general income of the common man and how this type of system affects both parties. Australia is one of the countries that use private health care system which is called Medicare. Medicare receives funding from 1.5% of the total government levy. This levy is given in exception to low income earners. High income earners also have an extra 1% levy ad ded to their tax. Private health insurance also provide 30% subsidiary on the private health insurance. It is approximated that in 2004, 8.8% of DP was spent by Australia on health care. The average expenditure of the common man on health care services was 1.9% of the total income of families and individuals. This is characterized by high quality doctors who get enough pay and work well to realize their set goals. The amount of money that an individual spends on medication after the taxed amount is reduced a lot. This means that it can be approximated that an average family use 2% of their total income on medication and this had covered all the expenses including the ones not insured (Grover 387). In Canada, government health care is the type of system that is used. Everyone is
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Analyze effective communication practices within diverse contemporary families - Essay Example People are not as close to each other as they once were. The much older folks prefer their people close to them. This is unlike the younger ones who prefer the distance between family members to be relatively large. Mobile phones are the only connection that enables people to communicate. This paper will review some stages present in the family life cycle. Also, it will look into the effects that effective communication plays in the different family settings that exist today. There are different stages that are present in the family life cycle. This is the transition that different families undergo during certain phases in their lives. This means that a family can undergo changes in their lives as times change, and the need to adapt to their immediate environment arises (Tutwiler, 2005). The first stage in the family cycle is the where young adults leave their homes. This is maybe in search of emotional and financial stability. This they may achieve on their own or maybe through help. At this stage, they struggle to create their own identities by becoming self-reliant. The comfort that comes with achieving independence is what drives them. The second stage that comes in the family life cycle is the joining of a couple. This is either through marriage, or living together. Here, a couple gets to adapt to the changes by learning to live with their spouse, and all the people in the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Commitment is the fundamental foundation on which this stage is based on (Gonzalez, 2005). Without commitment, the people in this arrangement may not have the ability to stand the test of time let alone have the time to create a family of their own. The third stage is the introduction of children into the family. Children bring a whole new dimension to the family structure. Room and time have to be created so as to accommodate them. They bring the family structure closer. This is sometimes
Friday, January 31, 2020
The problem of democratic regimes in central Europe Essay The First World War which was aimed at making the world safe for democracy had far reaching consequences. More than thirty countries had embraced the spirit of democratization and thus adopting democratic constitutions, a few years after the Treaty of Versailles. A large number of states in Central and Eastern Europe had become democratic. The majority of these countries were new nations that emerged as a consequence of Versailles. Linking up with the prevailing democratic spirit was thus quite natural. The trend spread from Estonia in the North to Albania in the south. It was a period characterized by great hopes for the future of democracy. Before long, the tide began to turn. A counter wave was beginning to take shape, and would gradually gather more and more momentum and strength. The 1920s and 1930s were characterized by far reaching setbacks for democracy. This new trend was witnessed in Petrograd in 1917, with the overthrow of the republican regime and closure of the democratically elected Duma by the Bolsheviks. This same method of gaining power was successfully used by right-wing nationalist forces in other countries. In 1922, Mussolini assumed the leadership of a group of Italian fascists and matched on Rome. He did not encounter much resistance and managed to oust the elected government and make himself a dictator. This came to be a trend setting event. Mussolinis daring act greatly inspired the German Nazis. Democracy thus fell victim to usurpers for many European lands. By the final years of 1930s, virtually every country in Central Europe was under authoritarian government (Rothschild, 1990). In the 1930s, nearly every state that had introduced a civilian and democratic regime shifted to military rule. With the conclusion of a pact between Hitler and Stalin in 1939 which allowed each to expand within his respective sphere of interest, the prospects of democracy seemed bleak. In Czechoslovakia, armed German assault abolished the existing democratic system. Belgium, Netherlands, France, Norway, Luxembourg and Denmark soon came under the same spell. Meanwhile, Finland came under Soviet attack. At the beginning of 1940s, democratic governments were very few. In the en tire world, the number of democratic countries amounted to about ten. Autocracy appeared to be sweeping everything before it. This paper is concerned with the problems that democracy faced during the nineteen twenties and nineteen thirties. It particularly looks at the challenges and threats that faced democracy during this period of time and the consequences of such challenges. The recurrent scene of liberal democracies falling victims to dictatorship dominated inter-war politics. The western powers hoped that their victory would bring in an epoch modeled in their own image. This was backed by the fact that the European continent at the beginning of the Great War had nineteen monarchies and three republics with the number of republics increasing to sixteen while that of monarchies decreasing to fourteen. Yet, the democratic revolution soon proved to be illusory. Not one democratic country could last a year before its democratic constitution became violated by one or other brand of dictator. This phenomenon cannot be attributed to a single cause except for the inability of the Western Powers to defend the regimes that they had inspired. All the brands of dictators shared the conviction that Western democracy was not meant for them. The problem of democracy emanated from both the subjective and objective basis of politics. The subjective aspects of the social foundations of politics were however more difficult to influence than their more objectifiable structural side. Although it is clear that more durable forms of political systems have to be rooted in a more general supportive culture, its more specific elements in most cases defy clearer specification and quantification (Berg-Schlosser Mitchell, 2000). A sense of identification with a politys very existence is a precondition for any form of polity, both with regards its geographical national extension and its legitimate quality. Where there is an absence of either of these elements, or where they are undergoing basic changes, this can to a certain extent and temporarily be replaced by mere force or repression. However, in the longer run, important aspects of political structure and political culture have to be brought in line (Auer, 2004). For the democratic political system, this implies a general respect for the dignity of every human individual and its rights, a particular degree of mutual tolerance and trust in society, and a wider acceptance of democratic rules of the game. Among the things that presented a threat to democracy were Germany and Soviet Russia. These two countries also presented the two fundamental revisionist threats to the interwar territorial and social settlements. Even though many democratic European governments were wary of Bolshevik danger, Germany proved to be the basic menace. Neither in absolute nor in relative terms had Germany been made weak to the extent that had been assumed in the 1920s. Within Germany, the Germans failed to identify with democracy and instead viewed is as an obstacle. The Soviet Union on the other hand wanted to expand the extent of communism. Democracy thus suffered from these forces that it seemed incapable of conquering. As such, weak democratic regimes had to succumb to the emerging ideologies and force of dominant forces. As such, the very structure of the various European societies that supported various ideologies also posed a problem for democracy. The alliance option for other classes in both the late nineteenth century and in the twenties and thirties was changed by the existence of a large landed class which also changed the political outcomes. The authoritarian options for the bourgeoisie were opened up to the extent that the alliance of landlord-state-bourgeois impacted on the politics of the middle class and peasantry, locking out options for the working class (Davies, 1996). This in itself dealt presented various obstacles for democracy. It can also be said that the breakdown of democracy in interwar Europe was a consequence of the agrarian class relations and patterns of state-class alliances of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s. As such, it may be generally claimed that the major problem that democracy faced in Central Europe during the 1920s and 1930s was the incoherence between the thoughts, social, political and economic structures of the countries. Today, it is now generally accepted that democracy needs a supportive culture, even if it is agreed that this culture can be strongly shaped by temporary and short-term factors including economic performance, and by other underlying variables such as the institutional setting upon which this culture is set. Popular support for the establishment of an independent civil society integrating intermediate group and associations which feed into the political process and aggregate different societal interests is also needed. Since the freedom of speech, religion, media, assembly and the right to form independent groups and opposition parties were all suppressed during the communist era, the norms associated with civic culture had to take time to establish itself.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
I Have Always Enjoyed Mathematics Ã I have always thoroughly enjoyed Mathematics, and perhaps naturally, I am looking towards a degree course in finance. However, I have other interests beside Mathematics. I believe a Business and Management degree course would be more satisfying because of its diverse elements. When recently I became Deputy Head Girl, my interest in management was awakened. I now have important responsibilities. I have become much more aware of time-management, working as part of a team, setting targets, and representing both the Headmaster and the pupils. Being part of the Sixth Form Council, the school's prefectorial forum, has made me more confident in expressing my opinions, and developing my listening skills. Ã Working as a clerical assistant in an architectural firm in London for my work experience was very rewarding: I improved my computer skills and my ability to tackle new situations. I have also worked for the British Council in Cairo teaching English. Ã I am thoroughly enjoying the International Baccalaureate, and one particular recent project stands out, the Science project. As secretary of our group, I had to make sure that everyone was working, and organise meetings, prepare a formal presentation, which was recorded on video. This project showed how a team worked under pressure, and that working together was essential. Ã I enjoy sport and started playing squash when I first came to Gigglesworth and earlier this year I was appointed captain, once again useful experience for dealing with people who are not always willing. Not only do I work with my peers, but I also lead them: I can see how individual efforts affect the entire team. Directing fund raising events for Amnesty International further refined my organisation skills. Recruiting new members to the group tested my promotional abilities as well. Ã I completed Silver level in the Duke of Edinburgh Award scheme in 1999. I have nearly completed the Gold, which has been very demanding but great fun.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Research I I. The effectiveness of Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) as a soapÃ¢â¬ ¦ II. The Feasibility of Paper to become FurnitureÃ¢â¬ ¦ III. The capability of Talahib (Saccharum spotaneum) to become a ropeÃ¢â¬ ¦ The Effectiveness of Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) as a Cleaning Agent (Biologically- Based Research) Chapter 1 Introduction A. Background of the Study In our world, the taste of the chili was not famous to some people because it is spicy, hot, and very less aroma when eaten but because of its taste it is later on found out that chili was a good mosquito killer because of its pesticidal property while kamias was also used as spice but it was discovered that it has properties such as astringent, stomachic, refrigerant and anti scorbutic. Other researchers use kamias as wine but in this research the proponents was to test the properties of kamias fruit with chili as a mosquito killer. B. Statement of the Problem * The researchers aim to study the effect of Malunggay leaves as a cleaning agent of common household stains. * The researchers also aim to study how Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) will be turned into a cleaning agent. Essential Questions * Can the Malunggay leaves be effective of being a Cleaning Agent? * Is there many or few differences between the Malunggay leaves or commercials? * Are the Malunggay leaves capable of replacing commerciality? C. Hypotheses * The Malunggay leaves will be effective when cleaning different kinds of stains, dirt, clutters, and bad odors * The Malunggay Cleaning Agent will be a great alternative in cleaning different kinds of surfaces. D. Significance and Importance of the Research Study This particular and specific research study can easily contribute to the youth generation, for them to be capable of deriving cleaning agents from different kinds of plants, fruits, vegetables and other great alternatives. It is again for the Youth to develop their resourcefulness by using alternative plants as different functions in life. Research studies like this also develops the value of open-mindedness to young researchers and if landed to the right plant, this will serve as an everyday use to clean common household stains. E. Scope and Limitations Our research study is only limited to the Malunggay plant and just the leaves of the Malunggay. This only occurs when the Malunggay leaves are pounded and scrubbed on common and everyday household stains. F. Definition of Terms * Cleaning Agent Ã¢â¬â a fragrant substance, liquid, is used to remove dirt, dusts, stains, bad smells and molds in different kinds of solid surfaces * Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) Ã¢â¬â a native plant from India. But rapidly and immediately spread to tropical regions. Malunggay was considered medicinal food, because it is rich in vitamins, nutrients and different kinds ofÃ minerals. It is really helpful to those people who are suffering coughs and other diseases. The Feasibility of Paper to become Furniture (School- Based Research) Chapter 1 Introduction A. Background of the Study Paper refers to a flexible material made from pulped rags, woods, and other related things, which is used to write on, wrap in or cover walls; a single sheet of this, an official document, newspaper, essay or lecture, a set of examination questions, personal documents are made of paper. Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing, printing, drawing or packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose from woods. Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the common is for writing and printing. It is also seldomly used as food ingredient in Asian Cultures. The oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to 2nd century BC in China. The pulp papermaking process is ascribed to Cai Lun, a 2nd-century AD Han court eunuch. With paper an effective substitute for silk in many applications, China could export silk in greater quantity, contributing to a Golden Age. Paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe in the 13th century, where the first water-powered paper mills were built. In the 19th century, industrial manufacture greatly lowered its cost, enabling mass exchange of information and contributing to significantÃ cultural shifts. In 1844, Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and German F.G. Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibers. Furniture refers to the basic things, objects, and materials often used in everyday life such as chairs, tables, desks and other related things. These things are often made from wood, plastics, glass, steel and other sources. It refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as sitting and sleeping. Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work. B. Statement of the Problem * The researchers aim to use paper from Sta. Clara Parish School (SCPS) and use waste papers to create different kinds of furniture. * The researchers also aim to study the factor of Reusing, Reducing and Recycling and helping Schools to make use of Waste Papers to become useful for people. Essential Questions * Can Paper be effective on making or creating different kinds of furniture? * Is there many or few differences between furniture made from paper and wood? * Can we make furniture out of paper and make it sturdy enough even when paper is used? * Is Paper capable of replacing furniture made from wood? C. Hypotheses * The researchers can say that Paper will be effective; it can be turned into furniture. * The Paper Furniture will be a great alternative and it can be sturdy furniture. D. Significance and Importance of the Research Study This particular and specific research study can easily contribute to the youth generation, for them to be capable of deriving furniture from different kinds of things, objects, and materials. It is again for the Youth to develop their resourcefulness by using alternative things as different functions in life. Research studies like this also develops the value of open-mindedness to young researchers and if landed toÃ the right object, this will serve as an everyday furniture in many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s houses. E. Scope and Limitations Our research study is only limited at Sta. Clara Parish School Pasay. And only the used papers or waste papers that can help a program of the school called Waste Minimization Program that is facilitated by the Student Coordinating Body (SCB). Waste Paper only occurs when a certain paper was already used and surely cannot be used again. F. Definition of Terms * Paper Ã¢â¬â A Thin material made from wood mainly used for writing, drawing, graphing, printing, packaging and other uses. * Furniture Ã¢â¬â These are the movable things that are made from wood. And commonly used for everyday activities such as sitting, eating in, sleeping, and other human activities for everyday. These examples are chairs tables, desks, bed and other. The Capability of Talahib (Saccharum Spotaneum) as a Cleaning Agent (Physically- Based Research) Chapter 1 Introduction A. Background of the Study Rope is a linear collection of plies, yarns or strands which are twisted or braided together in order to combine them into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting, but are far too flexible to provide compressive strength. As a result, they cannot be used for pushing or similar compressive applications. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, line, string, and twine. Rope may be constructed of any long, stringy, fibrous material, butÃ generally is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibre ropes are significantly stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, but also possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness. Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, seafaring, exploration, sports, hangings, theatre, and communications; and has been used since prehistoric times. In order to fasten rope, a large number of knots have been invented for countless uses. Talahib (Saccharum Spotaneum) is a grass native to South Asia. It is a coarse, erect and perennial grass, growing up to three meters in height, with spreading rhizomatous roots Panicles are white and erect, measuring 15 to 30 centimetres long, with slender and whole branches, the joints covered with soft white hair. Spikelet are about 3.5 millimetres long, much shorter than the copious, long, white hairs at the base. In the Terai-Duar savannah and grasslands, a lowland eco-region at the base of the Himalaya range in Nepal, India, Bangladesh and Bhutan, Talahib grass quickly colonises exposed silt plains created each year by the retreating monsoon floods, forming almost pure stands on the lowest portions of the floodplain. It is also said that Talahib can be a great alternative medicine as well. In Siddha, the whole plant is used for diseases of vatam and pittam, vomiting and various abdominal disorders, mental diseases, dyspnoea, anemia and obesity. In Uttar Pradesh, paste prepared f rom equal quantities of fresh roots of Cynodon dactylon and Saccharum spotaneum is given with cowÃ¢â¬â¢s milk and sugar for leucorrhea, early morning for one month. B. Statement of the Problem * The researchers aim to study the effect of Talahib when used as a bundled, strengthened and tightened rope. * The researchers also aim to study how Talahib (Saccharum Spotaneum) will become or be bundled together as a rope. Essential Questions * Can the Talahib be used in making a strong rope? * How strong is the Talahib rope if bundled and tightened together? * Is the Talahib rope capable of replacing the Synthetic Ropes? C. Hypotheses * The Talahib Rope will be strong, tightened and the researchers can make a bundle out of the Talahib Strands. * The Talahib Rope will be effective, efficient, useful and can be easily made. D. Significance and Importance of the Research Study This particular and specific research study can easily contribute to the youth generation, for them to be capable of deriving ropes from different kinds of plants and materials. It is again for the Youth to develop their resourcefulness by using alternative plants as different functions in life. Research studies like this also develops the value of open-mindedness to young researchers and if landed to the right plant, this will serve as an effective use in climbing, rescuing people and other activities that ropes are involved. E. Scope and Limitations Our research study is only limited to the Talahib plant and just the strands of the Talahib that is harvested. This only occurs when Talahib strands are thin-like structures and can undergo the process of bundling or combining together as one. F. Definition of Terms * Rope Ã¢â¬â Rope is a linear collection of plies, yarns or strands which are twisted or braided together in order to combine them into a larger and stronger form * Talahib (Saccharum Spotaneum) Ã¢â¬â is a grass native to South Asia. It is a coarse, erect and perennial grass, growing up to three meters in height, with spreading rhizomatous roots
Monday, January 6, 2020
Mark Zuckerberg says hes neither a Democrat nor a Republican. But his social media network, Facebook, has played a huge role in American politics, particularly the election of Donald Trump in 2016. Zuckerberg Isnt Affiliated With a Major Party Zuckerberg is registered to vote in Santa Clara County, California, but does not identify himself as being affiliated with the Republican, Democrat or any other party, according to a 2013 report in the Wall Street Journal. I think its hard to affiliate as being either a Democrat or a Republican. Im pro knowledge economy, Zuckerberg said in September 2016. Facebook Political Action Committee The Facebook cofounderÃ and his companysÃ political action committeeÃ haveÃ given tens ofÃ thousands of dollars to political candidates of both parties in recent years, a relatively small amount given the vast sums of money flowing through the election process. Yet the billionaireÃ¢â¬â¢s spending on campaigns does not tell us muchÃ about his political affiliation, a topic of much speculation. Zuckerberg is a major contributor to FacebookÃ¢â¬â¢s political-action committee, called Facebook Inc. PAC. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s given $25,000 to the PAC since 2011, according to federal records. The Facebook PAC raised nearly $350,000 in the 2012 election cycle. It spent $277,675 supporting federal candidates; Facebook spent more on Republicans ($144,000) than it did on Democrats ($125,000).Ã In the 2016 elections, Facebook PAC spent $517,000 supporting federal candidates. In all, 56 percent went to Republicans and 44 percent went to Democrats. In the 2018 election cycle, Facebook PAC spent $278,000 supporting candidates for federal office, mostly on Republicans, records show. Zuckerberg did, however, give his largest one-time donation to the Democratic Party in San Francisco in 2015 when he cut a check for $10,000, according to Federal Election Commission records. He has sharply criticized President Trumps Republican immigration policies, saying he was concerned about the impact of the presidents first executive orders. We need to keep this country safe, but we should do that by focusing on people who actually pose a threat, Zuckerberg wrote on his Facebook page. Expanding the focus of law enforcement beyond people who are real threats would make all Americans less safe by diverting resources, while millions of undocumented folks who dont pose a threat will live in fear of deportation. Zuckerbergs large donation to Democrats and his criticism of Trump have led some to the conclusion that the Facebook CEO is a Democrat. But Zuckerberg did not contribute to anyone in the 2016 congressional or presidential races, not even Democrat Hillary Clinton. He also stayed out of the 2018 midterm elections, records show. But Zuckerberg and Facebook haveÃ nonetheless come under intense scrutiny for the social networks outsized influence on American political discourse, in particular its role in the 2016 election. Campaign Contributions to Republicans and Democrats Zuckerberg himself has contributed to:Ã Sean Eldridge: Zuckerberg contributed the maximum $5,200 to the Republican House candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign committee in 2013. Eldridge is husband of Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes, according to the National Journal.Orrin G. Hatch: Zuckerberg contributed the maximum $5,200 to the Republican senator from UtahÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign committee in 2013.Marco Rubio: Zuckerberg contributed the maximum $5,200 to the Republican senator from FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign committee in 2013.Paul D. Ryan: Zuckerberg contributed $2,600 to the failed 2012 Republican vice presidential nominee and House member in 2014.Charles E. Schumer: Zuckerberg contributed the maximum $5,200 to the Democratic senator from New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign committee in 2013.Cory Booker:Ã Zuckerberg also contributed $7,800 in 2013 to theÃ prominent member of the Democratic Party and senatorÃ who is widely believed to be a leading candidate for president as soon as 2020. ButÃ ZuckerbergÃ sought and received a full ref und for unexplained reasons. Facebooks Role in the 2016 Election Facebook has drawn fire not for its or its founders campaign contributions, however, but for its business practices. The company has been criticized for allowing partisan third parties (one of which had ties to the Trump campaign) to collect data about users, and for allowing its platform to serve as a tool for Russian groups seeking to sow discord among the American electorate. Zuckerberg was called to testify in his own defense before members of Congress who had express concern for user privacy. The companys largest controversy to date has been the disclosure, first reported by The New York Times, that a political consulting firm harvested the data of tens of millions of Facebook users, information that was later used to build psychological profiles of potential voters in 2016. The firm, Cambridge Analytica, worked for the Trump campaign in 2016. Its misuse of the data prompted internal investigations by Facebook and the suspension of about 200 apps. Facebook was also hammered by policymakers for allowing theÃ proliferation of misinformation, often called fake news, across its platformÃ¢â¬âmisinformation that was designed to disrupt the election process, government officials have said. AÃ Kremlin-backed firm called theÃ Internet Research Agency purchased thousands of derogatory Facebook ads as part of its operations to interfere in elections and political processes,Ã¢â¬ federal prosecutors allege. Facebook did little, if anything, to discourage the spread of misinformation before and during the campaign. Zuckerberg and Facebook launched efforts to take down fake accounts and misinformation. The social media cofounder told members of Congress the company previously didnt take a broad enough view of our responsibility, and that was a big mistake. It was my mistake, and Im sorry. I started Facebook, I run it, and Im responsible for what happens here. Political Advocacy Zuckerberg is among the tech leaders behind FWD.us, or Forward U.S. The group is organized as a 501(c)(4) social welfare organization under Internal Revenue Service code. That means it can spend money on electioneering or make contributions to super PACs without naming individual donors. FWD.us spent $600,000 on lobbying for immigration reform in 2013, according to the Center For Responsive Politics in Washington. The groupÃ¢â¬â¢s primary mission is to get policy makers to pass comprehensive immigration reform that includes, among other tenets, a pathway to citizenship for the estimated 11 million undocumented immigrants currently living in the United States who do not have legal status. Zuckerberg and many tech leaders are lobbying Congress to pass measures that would allow for more temporary visas to be issued to high-skilled workers. The contributions to individual members of congress or candidates listed above are examples of his support for those who back immigration reform. Zuckerberg, though he personally has contributed to Republican political campaigns, has said the FWD.us is nonpartisan. Ã¢â¬Å"We will work with members of Congress from both parties, the administration and state and local officials,Ã¢â¬ Zuckerberg wrote in The Washington Post. Ã¢â¬Å"We will use online and offline advocacy tools to build support for policy changes, and we will strongly support those willing to take the tough stands necessary to promote these policies in Washington.Ã¢â¬